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Private Label Skincare & Custom Formulations

We don't test on animals, but animals love using our products. Ask Priscilla.

We don't test on animals, but animals love using our products. Ask Priscilla.

What products are considered cosmetics?

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) defines cosmetics as "articles intended to be applied to the human body for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness or altering the appearance without affecting the body's structure or functions." Examples include skin cream, perfume, lipstick, nail polish, eye and facial makeup, shampoo and hair color. Any ingredient used in a cosmetic also falls under this definition. Products normally labeled as cosmetics are classified as drugs when a medical claim is made. For example, toothpaste is sometimes classified as a cosmetic, but toothpaste that advertises cavity protection is a drug. The same is true for deodorants advertised as antiperspirants, shampoos that make anti-dandruff claims and lotions that contain sunscreen.

Is animal testing legally required for cosmetics sold in the United States?

No. The Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act (regulated by the Food and Drug Administration) prohibits the sale of mislabeled and "adulterated" cosmetics, but does not require that animal tests be conducted to demonstrate that the cosmetics are safe.

Where is animal testing mandatory?

The Chinese government conducts mandatory animal tests on all cosmetic products imported into the country. The government may also conduct animal tests on items pulled from store shelves. Therefore, even if a cosmetics company does not test their products or ingredients on animals, if they sell their products in China they cannot be considered cruelty-free.

Where is animal testing banned?

In 2013, a ban on animal testing for cosmetics and the marketing of cosmetics tested on animals went into effect in the European Union, paving the way for efforts to find alternatives for all of the common cosmetics tests that use animals. India, Israel, Norway and Switzerland have passed similar laws. Cosmetic companies in the United States and abroad that conduct animal tests will not be able to sell those products in any of these countries unless they change their practices. California, as well as Guatemala, New Zealand, South Korea, Taiwan, Turkey and several states in Brazil have also passed laws to ban or limit cosmetic animal testing.

Can legislation help end animal testing for cosmetics?

One approach is through legislative and policy initiatives that prohibit the testing of cosmetics on animals. The Humane Cosmetics Act, if enacted, would end cosmetics testing on animals in the U.S. by prohibiting the use of animals to test cosmetics and banning the import of animal-tested cosmetics.

A longer-term approach is to develop non-animal tests that provide a broader range of human safety information—including information about cancer and birth defects—that would provide complete evaluation of new products. Until that time, an effective approach is consumer pressure; companies will get the idea if consumers show a strong preference for cruelty-free cosmetics and support an end to cosmetics animal testing.

Why do some companies still use animal testing?

When choosing to develop or use new, untested ingredients in their cosmetic products, some companies will conduct new animal tests to assess the safety of these new ingredients. This practice is both unnecessary and inaccurate, and the HSUS actively opposes the choice to unnecessarily use animals in these cruel tests.

What cosmetics tests are performed on animals?

Although they are not required by law, several tests are commonly performed that expose mice, rats, rabbits and guinea pigs to cosmetics ingredients. These can include:

  • Skin and eye irritation tests where chemicals are rubbed onto the shaved skin or dripped into the eyes of restrained rabbits without any pain relief.
  • Repeated force-feeding studies lasting weeks or months to look for signs of general illness or specific health hazards such as cancer or birth defects.
  • Widely condemned "lethal dose" tests, in which animals are forced to swallow large amounts of a test chemical to determine the dose that causes death.

At the end of a test, the animals are killed, normally by asphyxiation, neck-breaking or decapitation. Pain relief is not provided. In the United States, a large percentage of the animals used in such testing (such as laboratory-bred rats and mice) are not counted in official statistics and receive no protection under the Animal Welfare Act.

Are there other arguments against testing on animals?

Yes. Animal tests have scientific limitations, as different species respond differently when exposed to the same chemicals. Consequently, results from animal tests may not be relevant to humans, as they can under-or overestimate real-world hazards to people.

In addition, results from animal tests can be quite variable and difficult to interpret. Unreliable and ineffective animal tests mean consumer safety cannot be guaranteed. In contrast, non-animal alternatives can combine human cell-based tests and sophisticated computer models to deliver human-relevant results in hours or days, unlike some animal tests that can take months or years. Non-animal alternatives are also typically much more cost-effective than tests that use animals.

What are the alternatives to animal testing?

There are already many products on the market that are made using thousands of ingredients that have a long history of safe use. Companies can ensure safety by choosing to create products using those ingredients. Companies also have the option of using existing non-animal tests or investing in and developing alternative non-animal tests for new ingredients. There are nearly 50 non-animal tests that have been validated for use, with many more in development. These modern alternatives can offer results that are not only more relevant to people, but more efficient and cost-effective. Advanced non-animal tests represent the very latest techniques that science has to offer, replacing outdated animal tests that were developed decades ago.

What is the Be Cruelty-Free campaign doing to stop animal testing?

The Humane Society of the United States and Humane Society International are committed to ending animal testing forever. Through our Be Cruelty-Free campaign, we are working in the U.S. and around the globe to create a world where animals no longer have to suffer to produce lipstick and shampoo. In the United States, the Humane Cosmetics Act was introduced, which, if enacted, would prohibit animal testing for cosmetics in the U.S., as well as the import of animal-tested cosmetics. We're also reaching out to legislators and regulators in Canada, Asia and South America to achieve lasting progress for animals. By working with scientists from universities, private companies and government agencies worldwide, we are supporting efforts to develop an approach to testing that combines ultra-fast cell tests and sophisticated computer models to deliver human-relevant results in hours, unlike some animal tests that can take months or years.

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What is COMPASSION FOR ANIMALS?

THE CORPORATE STANDARD OF COMPASSION FOR ANIMALS ("THE STANDARD")

This is the Standard by which we certify all of the companies that apply for Leaping Bunny certification, published in its entirety. 

CRITERIA FOR NON-ANIMAL TESTED COSMETIC AND HOUSEHOLD PRODUCTS

Words and phrases described in the Standard appear in bold and have a corresponding definition located in the Definitions section below.

To achieve approval for its own-label Cosmetic and/or Household Products, a Company must comply with the following criteria:

  1. The Company does not and shall not conduct, Commission, or be a party to Animal Testing of any Cosmetic and/or Household Products including, without limitation, formulations and Ingredients of such products.

  2. The Company does not and shall not purchase any Ingredient, formulation, or product from any Third Party Manufacturer or Supplier that conducted, Commissioned, or had been party to Animal Testing on said Ingredient, formulation, or product after the Company's Fixed Cut-off Date. If a formulation, Ingredient, or product is found not to comply with the Standard, the Company will replace it with an alternative that complies with the Standard's criteria or remove it from the product range.

    1. The Company must implement a Supplier Monitoring System:

      Option 1. A Company must obtain and provide to CCIC Declarations of Product Compliance and Declarations of Raw Material Compliance from each of its Third Party Manufacturers and Suppliers that said persons or entities comply with the provisions of the Standard with respect to the materials supplied to the Company. This information will be maintained on file at the Company's principal place of business as part of the Company's Supplier Monitoring System.

      Option 2. Insert the following language into the Company's (and, if applicable, Third Party Manufacturer's) Purchase Orders for Ingredients, formulations and finished products. A sample Purchase Order must be submitted to the Coalition for Consumer Information on Cosmetics (CCIC) as proof of compliance. The language must read as follows:

      "The supplier affirms by fulfilling this order that it does not conduct or commission animal testing of any cosmetics and/or household products, including without limitation, ingredients or formulations of such products, supplied to [relevant entity] after [Company's Fixed Cut-off Date]."

      Note: Companies are not required to obtain Declarations of Raw Material Compliance from suppliers of Natural Agricultural Ingredients.

    2. If the Company only distributes finished Cosmetics and/or Household Products, the Company shall require:

      (1) the Third Party Manufacturer(s) of those products to sign, and submit a copy to the Company, the Declarations of Product Compliance confirming that they did not and shall not conduct or Commission Animal Testing on said Ingredient, formulation, or product, and further, that the Third Party Manufacturer did not and shall not purchase any Ingredient, formulation, or product from Suppliers that conducted or Commissioned Animal Testing on said Ingredient, formulation, or product after the Company's Fixed Cut-off Date; and

      (2) the Third Party Manufacturer(s) of those products to obtain and maintain on file the signed Declarations of Raw Material Compliance, which certifies that their Supplier(s) and intermediary agent(s) comply with the Standard.

  3. The Company shall not allow Animal Testing to be performed by or for submission to regulatory agencies in foreign countries. The Company shall include language as an addendum to its contracts with any Distributor(s) selling the company's products for entry into foreign markets (any country other than United States and Canada). A sample contract addendum must be submitted to the CCIC as proof of compliance. The language must read as follows:

    "The Distributor affirms that it will not conduct, commission, or be a party to animal testing nor allow animal testing to be performed by or for submission to regulatory agencies in order to distribute [Company's] products in foreign markets.

  4. The Company shall submit the Application for Approval to the CCIC and retain a copy of this document at the Company's principal place of business.

  5. The Company shall agree to the following:

    1. A. Recommit annually; and
    2. B. CCIC may require a Company's Supplier Monitoring System to be submitted to an Independent Audit.

      (1) A company demonstrating less than $10 million in gross annual sales must agree to an independent audit commissioned by the CCIC with an accredited auditing firm.

      (2) A company demonstrating $10 million or more in gross annual sales shall commission an independent audit with an accredited auditing firm provided by the CCIC. 

Definitions

ANIMAL TESTING

All testing of finished Cosmetics and/or Household Products, or any one or more Ingredients or formulations used in manufacturing or production of such products in which whole non-human animals are the test subjects, including without limitation, fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and non-human mammals. Animal Testing excludes in vitro tests or tests conducted completely with human volunteers.

The prohibition against Animal Testing contained in the Standard does not apply to the purchase of animal-tested Ingredients if: (a) the ingredient was tested to meet explicit statutory or regulatory requirements for animal testing; AND (b) the testing was not conducted to assess safety, efficacy, or environmental effects of Cosmetics and/or Household Products.

COALITION
The Coalition for Consumer Information on Cosmetics (CCIC) and The European Coalition to End Animal Experiments (ECEAE).
COMMISSION
Where a Company requests a Third Party Manufacturer, Ingredient Supplier, other company in the group, or contract testing laboratory to conduct Animal Testing.
COMPANY
The person, corporation, partnership, or other legal organization that has separate existence and can function legally, including without limitation, its subsidiaries, affiliates, divisions, agents, and employees, involved in selling Cosmetic and/or Household Products under its own name.
COSMETICS
Personal care products, including without limitation, products for the hair (e.g., shampoo, conditioner, coloring agents, depilatory agents), skin (e.g., soap, moisturizer, sunscreen, aftershave, antiperspirant, deodorant, talcum powder, bubble bath), mouth (e.g., toothpaste, mouthwash), nails (e.g., nail polish, polish remover), perfume, cologne, lipstick, eye shadow and liner, and rouge. Cosmetics also means personal care products marketed or regulated as over-the-counter drugs (e.g., toothpaste marketed with the claim of fighting cavities, mouthwash marketed with the claim of killing germs).
DECLARATION OF PRODUCT COMPLIANCE
Written confirmation obtained by a Company once a year from its Third Party Manufacturers and Suppliers that they have not be involved with Animal Testing for the product. The manufacturer will have gathered Declarations of Raw Material Compliance to substantiate this declaration. These documents form the Company's Supplier Monitoring System.
DECLARATION OF RAW MATERIAL COMPLIANCE
Written confirmation by a Supplier, obtained once a year, that the Supplier has not been involved with Animal Testing for specified Ingredients. These documents form the Company's Supplier Monitoring System.
DISTRIBUTOR
A distributor that manages the sale of products from a Company into foreign markets. A distributor does not include retailers that sell directly to foreign customers through their websites.
FIXED CUT-OFF DATE

A date after which a Company, its Third Party Manufacturers, and/or Suppliers must not have conducted or commissioned Animal Testing for the Company's own-label products and/or Ingredients supplied for use in the Company's Cosmetic and/or Household Products.

A Fixed Cut-off Date must be fixed, and applied across the Company's entire Cosmetic and/or Household Products range, now and in the future.

GROSS ANNUAL SALES
Financial figure applied to a Company's own-label range of Cosmetic and/or Household Products.
HOUSEHOLD PRODUCTS
As used in the Standard, Household Products means those products identified as household products in the Consumer Product Safety Commission Act, including without limitation, laundry and dish detergent, bleach, cleaners and cleansers, floor wax, furniture polish, and air fresheners. Household Products does not include paint and paint remover, varnish and other stains, chemical drain declogger, or insecticide.
INDEPENDENT AUDIT
An assessment of a Company's Supplier Monitoring System.
INGREDIENT
A single substance or mixture of substances, system, or compound, intended for use in Cosmetic and/or Household Products, as listed on the product label.
LOGO LICENSEE
Company that chooses to sign the Logo Licensing Application Form and purchase and/or acquire logo licensing rights to the Leaping Bunny Logo.
NATURAL AGRICULTURAL INGREDIENTS
Raw ingredients grown from the earth and supplied in this raw, unprocessed state. (For example, grown herbs and flowers. However, the definition does not include Ingredients such as essential oils, stabilizers, preservatives or other additives that are supplied by an Ingredient manufacturer.) Natural Agricultural Ingredients are excluded from needing a Declaration of Raw Material Compliance.
STANDARD
The Corporate Standard of Compassion for Animals, which forms the criteria for CCIC approval.
SUPPLIER
Any manufacturer that supplies, directly, through an agent, or Third Party Manufacturer, any Ingredient or Ingredient mixture used in the formulation of a Company's own-label Cosmetic and/or Household Products. This includes the original manufacturer of the Ingredient.
SUPPLIER MONITORING SYSTEM
A system by which a Company monitors its Third Party Manufacturers and Suppliers at least once a year to ensure that they have not conducted or Commissioned Animal Testing. Suppliers to be monitored must include the original manufacturer of the Ingredient.
THIRD PARTY MANUFACTURER
A manufacturer that produces products on behalf of the Company seeking approval under the Standard.

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IBE Best in Show Nominees

IBE Best in Show Nominees

2019 BEST IN SHOW NOMINEES

After another incredible year at IBE, we are thrilled to announce the 2019 Best in Show Award Categories and Nominees.

Almost 350 products have been nominated across 40 categories after exhibiting at any of our five 2019 shows: Los Angeles, Berlin, Dallas, New York and London. Also below, you will also find our esteemed panel of professional beauty experts who have been testing the products, evaluating such criteria as: functionality, efficacy, texture, durability, packaging, scent, ingredients, performance, design and social responsibility. Finalists will be announced towards the end of the year and the winners will be announced in January 2020 before IBE LA.

An exclusive limited-edition collection of winning brands will also be made available for purchase following the announcement. To get your hands on the collection first, join the waitlist for first access!

Read more about our 2019 Best In Show nomination launch on Beauty Independent.

*2018 BIS Winner / *2017 BIS Winner / *2016 BIS Winner

Little Butterfly London
o.Moi Skincare
TBH Kids
Visha Skincare
 
 
Bartpracht GmbH
Belle & Beast Organics
Scotch Porter
*Way of Will
 
 
A Wholesome Glow
Berlin Skin
Bija Essence
BLNCD Naturals
Camille Obadia Skincare
Cannibabe
Free + True Skincare
Henua Organics
I and I Botanicals
Marine + Vine
Petal Fresh® Superfoods™
Pure Mana Hawaii
 
Beboe Therapies
Dame Products
Free + True Skincare
Haruharu
Henua Organics
I and I Botanicals
Maiiro
Nala Care Inc.
*O’o Hawaii
Othús Perfumery
Rosebud Woman
solara suncare
 
*Au Naturale Cosmetics
Clare Blanc
*CLOVE + HALLOW
EcoStardust
Northlore
REALHER
UND GRETEL
 
ACE BEAUTE LLC
Aether Beauty Co
Clare Blanc
IBY Beauty
Lord & Berry
REALHER
*SAINT COSMETICS
UND GRETEL
 
Ayr Skin Care
*PLANT Apothecary
SkinKick
Switch2Pure
*TRACIE MARTYN BEAUTY & WELLNESS
Trisha Watson Organics
Viliv
Yangu Beauty
 
ANDA Skincare
Camille Obadia Skincare
Higher Education Skincare
naisture
Viliv
WHISH BEAUTY
 
 
ABSOLUTION
Acaderma Inc.
AMPERSAND
Biophile Skincare
BYROE
*Code of Harmony
Herbologia
Honor MD Skincare
InstaNatural
LaFlore Probiotic Skincare
Leaf People Skin Care
LEYOS
Nø Cosmetics
Refresh Skin Therapy
SkinKick
Teami Blends
Viliv
 
Alister for Men by Dan Bilzerian
Dead Sexy by Margot Elena
ILSA FRAGRANCES
KIERIN NYC
Marine + Vine
Othús Perfumery
Stories by Eliza Grace
The Sage Lifestyle
 
Bukli Haircare
Copperhed Hair Care System
Cria Hair
Danielle Creations
Kèrluxe
label.m USA
Pony puffin by PUFFIN BEAUTY
Smooth and Strong CBD Haircare
Virtue Labs
Zenz Organic Products
 
BOOTSY HEALTH
Cannabliss Organic
CLEBAN
ENERGYbits Inc.
*HUM Nutrition
Hush + Hush
Nutrafol
SkinTē
Stamba Inc
 
Herbal Dynamics Beauty
Inlight Beauty
KISS YOUR CRAVINGS GOODBYE
KOCOSTAR USA
LA LA LEAF
*patchology
True North Beauty
 
*CLOVE + HALLOW
L.O.V. Cosmetics
My Moi
The Organic Skin Co.
 
 
ALL TIGERS
EMILIE HEATHE
enmarie
gitti
Taupe Coat
The SIGN Tribe
 
CTRL Cosmetics
Dermatologist’s Choice Skincare
Herbal Dynamics Beauty
Little Butterfly London
POLAAR
SUB & TARCTIC
SWAY
TERRA/FORM
The Good Patch by La Mend
The Spoiled Bee Cosmetics
Viking Beauty Secrets
 
Asutra
Be You
black chicken remedies
KISKANU HUMBOLDT
LA LA LEAF
*Little Moon Essentials
Mineralgia
Simris
Sweet and Kind
Switch2Pure
Visha Skincare
 
Amazon Beauty®, Inc. | Rahua®
ATAR GOLD / PHYTO LUX
COCONUT TREE
Comprehensive Cranium Care®
EVOLVh
Flow Cosmetics
FOAMIE
*Hydro Hair
NatureLab. TOKYO
Nelson J Beverly Hills
Nuuvo Haircare
Pharmacopia Natural Bodycare
The Seaweed Bath Co.
TRUHAIR by Chelsea Scott
Virtue Labs
Zatik Naturals
Zenz Organic Products
A Wholesome Glow
Asutra
I and I Botanicals
I WANT YOU NAKED – Natural Skincare
Intoxicating Beauty
Laki Naturals
LEDIBELLE
*Little Moon Essentials
NHCO Botanical Bodycare
 
Bodhi
Bonblissity
C and The Moon
Céla
Intoxicating Beauty
JURENKA Body Care
LATHER
Organically Wonderful
Sanara
 
Bleu Lavande
Bodhi
Petal Fresh® Superfoods™
Pharmacopia Natural Bodycare
Stories by Eliza Grace
 
 
*Au Naturale Cosmetics
Cria Hair
**Province Apothecary
 
 
Beautiac
Cellu-cup / Glowcup
Croon
GLAMCOR
hess klangkonzepte – Sound Self Care
Kusshi
PMD Beauty
Spoolies® Hair Care Products
 
ANJALI MD Skincare
APRICOT INC.
Ayr Skin Care
Berrichi
BLÜH ALCHEMY
POLAAR
Popmask
*Restorsea
Seaside Medical Technologies
Veriphy Skincare
Yangu Beauty
 
BEIGIC
BEVARA SKIN
*Code of Harmony
CTRL Cosmetics
ELENI & CHRIS
Herbologia
Minimo Skin Essentials
Refresh Skin Therapy
Shaffali
The Ellen Lange Retexturizing Peel
Trisha Watson Organics
Urban Skin Rx
 
Acaderma Inc.
Codex Beauty
EXERTIER
Good Science Beauty
Graydon Skincare
LaFlore Probiotic Skincare
Leaf People Skin Care
OTACI
Sweet and Kind
*When® BEAUTY
WHISH BEAUTY
 
Asutra
Flow Cosmetics
Inlight Beauty
Iroha Nature
*Little Moon Essentials
naisture
Voesh
WHISH BEAUTY
 
 
FLAUNT Body
Living Libations
Marin Bee Pure Honey Skincare
Valloloko
 
 
APRICOT INC.
Green Stem
Merci Handy
nooii
*SPARITUAL
 
 
Hawrych MD Lash
OTACI
Pinky Goat
Starr Beauty Products
 
 
CLOVE + HALLOW
*Elvis & Elvin Inc
Gorjue
Hickey Lipstick
Lucky Chick
*SAINT COSMETICS
Spoil Me Beautiful
The Organic Skin Co.
UND GRETEL
Unicorn Snot
 
Banila Co
Be Fancy
*Code of Harmony
DUCALM Skincare
Nature Organic Beauty
**Province Apothecary
PURE AURA
Yangu Beauty
Yon-Ka Paris
 
Dirt Don’t Hurt
Georganics Ltd.
Halosmile
Living Libations
My Magic Mud
 
Be You
Blume
Bra in a Box
Kegelbell
Lunette Menstrual cups
Rael
Rosebud Woman
Saalt
The Hello Cup
 
Graydon Skincare
Kegelbell
KISKANU HUMBOLDT
Living Libations
Rosebud Woman
Smile Makers
 
 
*ELENI & CHRIS
Elvis & Elvin Inc
ESW Beauty (previously Elina Skin)
Karuna Skin LLC
Knours
LAPCOS
Limese
MĀSK
MILU
*patchology
*When® BEAUTY
 
 
Aether Beauty Co
Biophile Skincare
Coconut Matter Limited
Ethique
Georganics Ltd.
Maiiro
POGO® Lip Balm
THE MOON
The Organic Skin Co.
 
black chicken remedies
Blume
Cleo&Coco Natural Body Care
ECO BY SONYA
FIELD
Honestly pHresh
KIND-LY
milk + honey
Nala Care Inc.
SWAY
Switch2Pure
Zatik Naturals
Zion Health

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5 Ways to Humanize Your Marketing

5 Ways to Humanize Your Marketing

After thousands of conversations with hundreds of brands, I’ve noticed something strange: Small brands are always trying to look big, while big brands are often trying to look small. I understand where each is coming from, but my advice is the same: It’s more important to make your brand seem human.

The more personal your marketing, the more likely the audience is to feel a connection to the brand, to care and to know what matters to you. Big or small, the brand that feels most human is likely to win the business.

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10 Characteristics of Brand Coolness—and How to Engineer Them

10 Characteristics of Brand Coolness—and How to Engineer Them

Brands like Off-White, Apple, Instagram and performers such as Beyoncé and Jay-Z have thrived and maintained their longevity at least in part because consumers think they are cool. A non-cool brand like Pabst Blue Ribbon became a hipster icon only to lose its luster soon after. MySpace was once the largest social media platform, but then Facebook stole its thunder. What makes brands cool? And how can managers build and maintain brand coolness to grow their customer base and drive revenues?

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Daytime vs. Nighttime Products?

Daytime vs. Nighttime Products?

Daytime vs. Nighttime Facial Skincare Routines: What You and Your Customers Need to Know

When faced with the massive array of available skincare products, in all their many categories and uses, many people are understandably daunted. It’s no simple feat to determine which products are really necessary, when to use them, which order to use them in, and which versions are the best. One particular issue that trips up many skincare product users is the difference between a nighttime routine and a morning routine. You may be a customer wondering the exact same thing, or a business wondering how to make this information accessible to customers. Either way, this information should help clarify this particular confusion.

Nighttime Skincare Routines Are Likely More Beneficial

Let’s start with the basics. One thing many don’t realize is that the vast majority of facial skincare should be done in the evening before bed. Morning products should be limited to just a few (which we’ll cover later), and the routine should be much simpler. Skincare is absolutely most effective at night. This is mostly due to the fact that the skin absorbs and replenishes while you sleep, so to get the best benefits, this is when you should do your heavy lifting skincare. When you moisturize, hydrate, and care for your skin before bed by using quality skincare products, all of that good stuff is absorbed and used by the skin to rejuvenate while you aren’t even conscious of it. You also do your skin the favor of cleansing away all the makeup, sweat, dirt, oil, and other substances that make their way onto your face throughout the day.

Morning Routine

In the morning, not only do you probably have less time to take care of your skin, but you also already did all the most important skincare the night before. This means your best bet is to keep your morning routine short and simple. Start by gentle rinsing your face or wiping it off with a damp, soft cloth. Don’t pull your cleanser back out—all you need in the morning is to slough off dead skin cells and prepare your skin for your other products.

Next, use a toner. This is the most underrated product out there, and the one that should definitely be used both day and night. Follow it with a serum, if you choose, and then (more importantly) a moisturizer with SPF. If for whatever reason you’re not outside in the sunshine, such as the winter months spent indoors, consider a moisturizer like the Nighttime Nourishing Creme.

To recap, here’s a morning routine in order:

• Rinse face with water, or wipe with a damp cloth
• Toner
• Serum
• Moisturizer with SPF
 
Nighttime Routine

Taking care of your face before bed is probably the most crucial part of any skincare routine. Because the skin does all of its best refreshing and rejuvenating as you sleep, making sure that your facial skin is cleansed and nourished before you hit the hay is the best way to wake up with soft, glowing, beautiful skin that looks great throughout the day. If you do an evening facial care routine only once a week, you won’t be reaping the full benefits of your products. Set aside a bit of time each evening to do these steps and you’ll enjoy a healthier skin glow, plus the relaxing benefits of self-care.

Always begin your evening skincare routine by cleansing your face. This is a crucial step to remove all the makeup, dirt, and other impurities that build up on your face over the course of the day. The next step is to use an exfoliator, if you choose. Exfoliators can be either chemical or physical, depending on your skin needs and age. Physical exfoliators are recommended for younger skin, while chemical or a combination of exfoliators are better for mature skin. Either way, exfoliators should only be used 2-3 times per week, as part of your evening routine. Here’s our favorite physical facial exfoliator and here’s a great chemical one (labeled as a cleanser) to get started.

Follow these steps with a mask, if you enjoy facial masks. There are masks with a wide variety of textures, ingredients, and uses, so look for one that is designed for the needs of your skin. This might be hydration, soothing, redness relief, vitamin-boosting, or a multitude of other benefits. You can see the full list of masks here.

The next step is to use a toner, which is something that many people skip, but should be prioritized. Toner is critical for the face, as it brings the pH balance of the skin to a normal level. It also provides other benefits, dependent on the specific ingredients of your toner. Check out an array of toners here.

Your next move is to apply a facial serum. These primarily serve to deliver potent actives and deep hydration to your skin, helping create that next-day glow and fullness. Facial serums also have a variety of benefits depending on their specific ingredient blend, so be to sure to choose one that suits your skin type and goals. Many people focus on reducing the appearance of wrinkles and signs of aging, but almost all serums can offer their own benefits like brightening, toning, and firming. We have several great options to choose from here.

Finish off your routine by applying the final touch: a face oil, cream, or moisturizer of your choosing. This one is totally up to you and whatever makes your skin feel best. A thick night cream can be incredibly nourishing and moisturizing if you have dry or overworked skin (and nighttime is the best time to use a thicker face cream!). But if you prefer a lighter finish, a face oil or light moisturizer may be preferable. All three of these options lock in the nutrients, moisture, and rejuvenating power of all the other products you’ve applied in your evening routine, giving you the best skin results morning after morning.

Night-Specific Products

You may have heard rumors about ingredients and products to avoid for daytime use. There are a few of these rumors that we personally agree with and also recommend. Products with high Vitamin C content should be used at night, as well as those with AHAs. Not only can these increase sun sensitivity, but they also do their best work at night, so it’s more worthwhile for you to make those products count by using them before bed. We also recommend retinol products for nighttime use, and suggest pairing a retinol with a Vitamin C-based moisturizing product for the best possible effects from both ingredients.

To recap, here’s a nighttime routine in order:

• Cleanser
• Exfoliant (physical or chemical)
• Mask, if you like to use them
• Toner (don’t skip this!)
• Serum
• Face oil, cream, or moisturizer
Summary

Crafting your ideal skincare routine can take a little time and trial and error, but pinning down what works for you and your customers is satisfying and gives you real results. We hope that better understanding the difference between day and night routines will help you design your own line, and you’ll see the differences in your own skin. Let us know your favorite routines or products for different times of day in the comments below.

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Sell to Voters, Not Consumers

Sell to Voters, Not Consumers

Politicians have realized that framing their messages helps them resonate with different voters. Now, marketing research also shows that brands can use a similar approach to target their liberal and conservative customers.

An avalanche of hot takes and deep dives follows any major election, when reporters and pundits examine how exactly a candidate won. Their victory typically boils down to one simple reason: They did a better job appealing to the region’s predominant values.

Analyses of consumer shopping choices use similar language: How did consumers vote with their dollars? What items did they elect? It starts to sound political—and in fact, a growing body of research finds that shopper decisions can be based on the values of voters.

Political identity has always been a component of consumers’ identity, says Vanitha Swaminathan, a professor of marketing at the University of Pittsburgh. “There’s something called identity salience, which is this notion that (asks), ‘How important is a component of who you are to you?’ Lately, it seems to me that people’s political orientation has become a salient part of their identity. It’s how you define yourself more and more.”

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Marketing researchers are finding that election maps can predict consumer attitudes as much as traditional demographics. The use of these insights doesn’t need to be overt: Ideological values can predict how consumers will respond to variations in messaging. Research on political messaging has shown as much, as studies find that conservative policies can gain liberal support when framed in terms of traditionally liberal values, such as empathy, social justice and equality of opportunity. The inverse is also true, as progressive policies were found to be more appealing to conservatives and moderates when framed in relation to traditionally conservative values such as patriotism, family, the American dream and respect for tradition.

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“In political campaigning, you appeal to different types of values, different types of things when trying to get people to vote for you,” says Samuel Gosling, a psychology professor at the University of Texas. It’s targeting by segmentation. “Political orientation is a really helpful variable because it does seem to predict a lot,” Gosling says. His own research from 2008, published in Political Psychology, found liberals to generally be more open-minded, creative, curious and novelty-seeking, while conservatives were found to be more orderly, conventional and better organized. It’s the exact type of audience insight that could make a marketer salivate.

As the nation becomes more politically polarized and Americans more entrenched in their views, political ideology may help marketers segment their audience. It’s just a matter of learning what traits are typical of an ideology, and how brand messaging can speak to them.

Growing political polarization may explain why ideology has become such a salient part of American identities.

A 2018 Gallup poll found that the number of Americans who identify as moderate shrank to 35%, down from 43% in 1992, while the portion of Americans identifying as liberal or conservative grew from 53% in 1992 to 61% in 2018. Pew Research shows Republicans and Democrats have been moving further apart in their political values, as well as approaches to addressing national issues they identify as top government priorities. Another Pew survey from 2018 found that 53% of Americans say that talking about politics with people they disagree with is generally stressful and frustrating, compared with 46% who said the same two years prior.

“Increasingly, this is going to be an important part of how people define themselves,” Swaminathan says. “And because it’s an important part of how people define themselves, companies and brands have no choice but to appeal to that part of identity.”

As Americans cling more strongly to political ideology as identity, there are two ways brands can tap into this segmentation, according to Nailya Ordabayeva, an assistant professor of marketing at Boston College. “First, they expect companies to chime in on political issues which they feel strongly about,” she says.

For example, Edelman’s 2018 Earned Brand study found that 64% of respondents said that they are buying from or boycotting brands based on the company’s stance on a social or political issue. Such belief-driven buyers were the majority in every market, age group and income level surveyed. The study also found that 67% of respondents purchased something for the first time because of the brand’s position on a controversial issue, while 65% said that they would not buy a brand because it stayed silent on an issue it should have addressed.

Appealing to consumers’ political ideologies by taking a stand on an issue has well-documented successes: In December 2017, Patagonia announced plans to sue the Trump administration in response to the government’s decision to reduce the protection on two national monuments in Utah. According to e-commerce and analytic company Slice Intelligence (now Rakuten Intelligence), Patagonia sales were 7% stronger the week of the statement than they were the previous week—a week that included Cyber Monday. Similarly, Nike sales surged 31% after it released its ad featuring Colin Kaepernick, according to Edison Trends.

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But not all brands that take a stance will see an uptick in sales. They can also run the risk of coming across as inauthentic or opportunistic (see: Pepsi’s Kendall Jenner commercial). And the ones that are successful in driving brand affinity for some can still alienate others (see: consumers burning their Nike apparel after the Kaepernick ad).

“There is also a more subtle and perhaps more pervasive way in which political ideology can impact consumption,” says Ordabayeva. “My work falls within the second line of influences, of the implicit impact of ideology on consumer shopping behavior that has nothing to do with politics.”

This second line of influence uses the traits and beliefs that are commonly attributed to liberals or conservatives to inform marketing messages. It’s segmentation by ideology in what products or services appeal to the two groups, but also in how the messaging can speak to their ideological values.

Ordabayeva’s research, published in August 2018 in the Journal of Consumer Research, used seven studies to illustrate how political ideology influences consumers’ preferences for how they differentiate themselves. This idea is based on social psychology research that found people have a fundamental desire to showcase their identity to others. The defining trait that Ordabayeva and co-author Daniel Fernandes explored was expression of social hierarchy, which found that conservatives differentiate themselves from others by signaling superiority, while liberals differentiate themselves by signaling how they’re unique.

“We find that conservatives like signals of superiority because they very much endorse the idea of vertical hierarchical structure being legitimate and a reflection of real differences in individual hard work and character,” Ordabayeva says, “whereas liberals don’t endorse that idea. This is why they look for ways to differentiate non-hierarchically through these signals of uniqueness.”

These consumer-signaling strategies can be used by brands in their market positioning and messaging. Ordabayeva provided two examples in an article for Harvard Business Review: Mercedes-Benz catered to consumers who wanted to show their superior qualities and positions with its “A Class Ahead” tagline, while ad slogans such as Apple’s “Think Different” speak to consumers wishing to highlight their uniqueness.

In one of Ordabayeva and Fernandes’ studies, they offered participants a choice between a mug with their name and the message “Just Better” or “Just Different.” They found that conservatives were 2.2 times more likely than liberals to choose the “Just Better” mug. In another of their studies, participants could win a gift card for participation from either Ralph Lauren, which their brand perception pretests showed signals superiority, or Urban Outfitters, which they found signals uniqueness. Conservatives tended to prefer Ralph Lauren while liberals tended to prefer Urban Outfitters.

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The patterns were consistent whether political ideology was captured by a basic either-or option (“Are you liberal or conservative?”), by a 1 to 9 scale (one being “extremely liberal” and nine being “extremely conservative”) or measured by people’s attitudes toward various political topics (such as views on abortion, gun control, same-sex marriage or illegal immigration). Another of their studies verified that the results were consistent across income brackets.

Political ideologies also predict other traits. Swaminathan and her colleagues found that liberals’ and conservatives’ relationship to power can also guide messaging. The research, published in the Journal of Marketing in February, targeted conservatives and liberals on Facebook to find that power-distance beliefs play a role in consumers’ preference of user-designed products.

“For liberals, they were more inclined to like the product if it had user design in it, but conservatives didn’t,” Swaminathan says. “We argue that the reason is that power distance beliefs are quite different between liberals and conservatives. Conservatives have a belief in high-power distance: that organizations are superior, they’re elite and therefore are able to make better decisions and should be in charge of the design of the product. Liberals, on the other hand, are much more low-power distance in that they believe that everybody should be equal, so consumers should be equally placed to give input.”

Another study, published in the Journal of Marketing in September 2018, found political ideology can segment how consumers of luxury products respond to messaging. The researchers found that conservatives’ desire for luxury goods relates to their goal of maintaining status, based on the idea that conservative political ideology increases the preference for social stability. In fact, upon activating status maintenance in study participants who identified as strongly conservative, these consumers were willing to pay $109.80 on average for a set of headphones, compared with those with weak conservative views who were only willing to pay $65.10.

As the U.S. edges toward the next election season, Americans’ thoughts are turning toward politics, making them more cognizant of their ideologies.

“I would expect elections to increase the salience of one’s political identity and thus the effect to be stronger around election days,” says David Dubois, a professor of marketing at INSEAD and co-author of the study on status messaging for luxury goods. “It may make sense for brands to tune their message before Election Day as one’s political identity gets stronger.”

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There’s proof that as Americans have become more polarized in their politics, they’ve begun pulling their identities with them. New York University political scientist Patrick Egan found evidence that people shift the nonpolitical parts of their identity to better align with being a Democrat or a Republican. His October 2018 paper used public opinion data collected through the General Social Survey, specifically a cohort of 3,900 people who were interviewed three times for the surveys, starting either in 2006, 2008 or 2010.

Each time the survey was conducted, respondents were asked to rank themselves on a seven-point ideological scale, then asked questions about their identities related to, for example, their heritage or religious beliefs. Among the shifts noted by Egan, conservative Republicans were much more likely than liberal Democrats to become born-again Christians and to stop identifying as non-religious. Liberal Democrats, on the other hand, were much more likely than conservative Republicans to leave religion and stop describing themselves as born-again.

If more Americans are shifting their identities to match their ideologies, and researchers have found that ideology can predict what messaging will appeal to shoppers, political orientation can serve as a new method of marketing segmentation.

“There are clear metrics of the ideologies of different markets,” Ordabayeva says. “There are electoral maps, voting data, in addition to demographic data such as Gallup poll data that can help marketers discern the political beliefs and ideologies of their consumers.”

For instance, Gallup polling from 2018 shows that audiences with the strongest conservative leanings include seniors, adults ages 50 to 64, men, residents of the South and adults with no college education, all of whom lean conservative by more than 15 percentage points. Whites, adults with some college education (but no degree) and residents of the Midwest lean conservative by at least 10 points. On the other side, adults with postgraduate education were 15 points more liberal than conservative and blacks were nine points more liberal. Adults ages 18 to 29 lean more liberal than conservative by four points, and adults ages 30 to 49, women and residents of the East lean slightly more liberal.

“Given that different geographies and different locations tend to lean politically one way or the other, companies could think about tailoring the positioning and the advertising, the messaging around their products toward superiority versus uniqueness in order to appeal more strongly to the ideological base of the specific market,” says Ordabayeva, in reference to her own research on differentiation signaling.

She also recommends that marketers consider targeting different outlets. It’s worth following where Republican and Democratic candidates place their ads. For example, digital and advertising strategy company Echelon Insights found in 2014 that 93% of political ads on the Golf Channel were for Republican candidates and 94% of the political spots on the E! Network were for Democratic candidates.

If a brand can use its existing demographics data to determine whether its customers are more liberal- or conservative-leaning, it can shape its messaging around that ideology’s values. If its customers span the spectrum, a brand can use that demographics data to shape what messaging appears across the country and on different media platforms.

“That’s where the real traction is, in values,” Gosling says. “That’s really what differentiates liberals and conservatives. And there’s a lot of flexibility in how you can appeal to those different values with the very same product.”

To win votes, politicians must appeal to their constituents’ values. To win customers, marketers may well use the same tactics.

 

Traits of Liberals and Conservatives: What else research has shown about political ideologies

Despite conservatives’ greater desire for control, three studies showed conservatism is positively related to variety-seeking. The study’s authors wrote that if a marketer wishes to target consumers who do not engage in variety-seeking among different brands—those who are brand loyal—they might target neighborhoods that are politically liberal or advertise in liberal media. On the other hand, if they wish to target consumers who are open to variety when introducing a new product, the marketer might target politically conservative neighborhoods or advertise in conservative media.

— “Political conservatism and variety-seeking,” Daniel Fernandes
and Naomi Mandel; Journal of Consumer Psychology

Researchers developed tailored persuasive messages about recycling that appealed to consumers’ political ideologies. They used messages related to individualizing foundations for liberals, based on fairness and avoiding harm to others, and the binding foundation for conservatives, based on duty and an obligation to adhere to authority. These appeals significantly affected consumers’ acquisition, use and recycling intentions and behaviors.

— “Getting Liberals and Conservatives to Go Green: Political Ideology and Congruent Appeals,” Blair Kidwell, Adam Farmer and David M. Hardesty; Journal of Consumer Research

In a study on charity advertising, researchers found liberals respond more favorably to equality-based rewards, whereas conservatives respond more favorably to proportionality-based rewards. They found liberals perceive greater effectiveness in equality-based rewards for donations based on random drawings, compared with conservatives who felt proportionality-based rewards based on donation amounts were more effective.

— “How Liberals and Conservatives Respond to Equality-Based and Proportionality-Based Rewards in Charity Advertising,” Younghwa Lee, Sukki Yoon, Young Woo Lee and Marla B. Royne; Journal of Public Policy & Marketing

In a study of attitudes toward human rights, liberals responded most significantly and were more motivated to act in response to messages framed to emphasize the suffering of victims. Conservatives were more likely to feel motivated when the information is framed by graphic visual imagery of human rights abuse.

— “Rights on the Left and Right: How Ideological Predispositions Affect Human Rights Attitudes,” Joseph Braun

Political orientation is associated with problem-solving strategy: In a study, liberals solved significantly more problems through insight and aha! moments instead of in a step-by-step, analytic fashion. Conservatives were more structured and preferred clear answers.

— “The politics of insight,” Carola Salvi, Irene Cristofori, Jordan Grafman and Mark Beeman; Psychological Science

Research on openness to new experiences and conscientiousness found liberals are more open to experience and conservatives tend to be attracted to normality. The researchers polled and observed subjects in their tests, but also looked for physical clues in dorm rooms and offices. Conservatives’ bedrooms tended to have more calendars, postage stamps, flags and sports posters. Their rooms were also neater and better lit. Liberals’ bedrooms had a greater variety of books, more CDs and a greater variety of music, along with more art supplies, cultural memorabilia and maps of other countries.

— “The Secret Lives of Liberals and Conservatives: Personality Profiles, Interaction Styles, and the Things They Leave Behind,” Dana R. Carney, John T. Jost, Samuel D. Gosling and Jeff Potter; Political Psychology

A 2014 quiz by Time magazine of 220,192 respondents found liberals were more likely to believe, for example, that self-expression is more important than self-control. The survey also found liberals are more likely to prefer cats to dogs and are more willing to try a new restaurant that blended the cuisines of two very different cultures. Conservatives, on the other hand, were more likely to believe that all children need to learn respect for authority. They were also more likely to be proud of their country’s history and would prefer visiting Times Square than the Metropolitan Museum of Art.

— “It’s True: Liberals Like Cats More Than Conservatives Do,” Time, February 2014

From the American Marketing Association 

https://www.ama.org/marketing-news/sell-to-voters-not-consumers/

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